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Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 11 June For this duality the variation of geographical conditions is, of course, chiefly responsible; but it is variation of political rather than of physical conditions. A history of the Arab peoples 1st Harvard Press pbk. Comoros is the smallest by population, with just , people.
Step 2: Summer invoices will be sent via email to your Duke email address and home email address. Remit payment to the Bursar per due date and address indicated on your online statement. Non-Duke students are not eligible to receive financial aid at Duke and should contact their home institutions for financial aid information. Attendance is required at all classes, excursions, and group events. You will make your own travel arrangements to and from the program site.
Once you have a flight itinerary, log in to MyGlobalEd to update your travel registry. You will need to make your own housing arrangements if you will be arriving before the program start date or leaving later than the program end date. GEO can provide a letter that may be required as part of the visa application process. All participants must have a valid passport. Make sure your passport has at least six months of validity beyond the program end date to avoid unintended disruptions.
For instructions on obtaining or renewing your U. If purchased in the U. You may purchase this card through www. Processing of the card takes between days. The Duke in the Arab World program director can assist with questions related to program academics, admissions, on-site needs, etc. For all other inquiries, please contact the Global Education Office. This program has rolling admission. Applications will be considered on a first-come, first-served basis until the program fills; after that, qualified students are added to a waitlist and notified of openings. Applications must be received by the deadline to be considered.
Application opens November 1. You must be a degree-seeking student in good standing at an accredited college or university. All program courses must be taken for graded credit. If seniors plan to graduate in May of the year they plan to study abroad in the summer, they will not be eligible to participate on any of our summer programs unless they receive approval from their academic dean at Duke to delay their graduation until after the summer program has ended. Non-Duke students planning to graduate in May in the year they plan to study abroad in the summer must provide approval to delay their graduation until after the summer program has ended from the appropriate official at their home institution.
Arab poets of that "Jahili poets", meaning "the poets of the period of ignorance"—used to recite poems with a high notes. These goods spread gradually throughout France , influencing French troubadours , and eventually reaching the rest of Europe. The English words lute , rebec , and naker are derived from Arabic oud , rabab , and naqareh. During the s and the s, Arabic music began to take on a more Western tone — artists Umm Kulthum , Abdel Halim Hafez , and Shadia along with composers Mohamed Abd al-Wahab and Baligh Hamdi pioneered the use of western instruments in Egyptian music.
By the s several other singers had followed suit and a strand of Arabic pop was born. Arabic pop usually consists of Western styled songs with Arabic instruments and lyrics. Melodies are often a mix between Eastern and Western. Beginning in the mids, Lydia Canaan , musical pioneer widely regarded as the first rock star of the Middle East        .
Arab polytheism was the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia. Different theories have been proposed regarding the role of Allah in Meccan religion. The religious beliefs and practices of the nomadic bedouin were distinct from those of the settled tribes of towns such as Mecca. Arabic philosophy refers to philosophical thought in the Arab world.
Schools of Arabic thought include Avicennism and Averroism. The first great Arab thinker is widely regarded to be al-Kindi — A. After being appointed by the Abbasid Caliphs to translate Greek scientific and philosophical texts into Arabic , he wrote a number of original treatises of his own on a range of subjects, from metaphysics and ethics to mathematics and pharmacology.
Much of his philosophical output focuses on theological subjects such as the nature of God , the soul and prophetic knowledge. The Arabic tradition combines Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Farabi and Avicenna. The Arabic philosophic literature was translated into Hebrew and Latin , this contributed to the development of modern European philosophy. Arabic science underwent considerable development during the 8th to 13th centuries CE, a source of knowledge that later spread throughout Europe and greatly influenced both medical practice and education.
These scientific accomplishments occurred after Muhammad united the Arab tribes. Within a century after Muhammed's death CE , an empire ruled by Arabs was established. It encompassed a large part of the planet, stretching from southern Europe to North Africa to Central Asia and on to India. From onward until the sacking of Baghdad by the Mongols in , the Caliph continued on as a figurehead, with power devolving more to local amirs.
Al-Battani c. His work is considered instrumental in the development of science and astronomy. One of Al-Battani's best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds which is only 2 minutes and 22 seconds off. Ibn al-Haytham Alhazen used experimentation to obtain the results in his Book of Optics , an important development in the history of the scientific method.
He combined observations , experiments and rational arguments to support his intromission theory of vision , in which rays of light are emitted from objects rather than from the eyes. He used similar arguments to show that the ancient emission theory of vision supported by Ptolemy and Euclid in which the eyes emit the rays of light used for seeing , and the ancient intromission theory supported by Aristotle where objects emit physical particles to the eyes , were both wrong. Al-Zahrawi , regarded by many as the greatest surgeon of the middle ages.
It remained the primary source for surgical procedures and instruments in Europe for the next years. The birth of the University institution can be traced to this development, as several universities and educational institutions of the Arab world such as the University of Al Quaraouiyine , Al Azhar University , and Al Zaytuna University are considered to be the oldest in the world. Founded by Fatima al Fihri in , the University of Al Quaraouiyine in Fez is the oldest existing, continually operating and the first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World Records   and is sometimes referred to as the oldest university.
Under Ottoman rule , cultural life and science in the Arab world declined. Rachid Yazami was one of the co-inventors of the lithium-ion battery ,  and Tony Fadell was important in the development of the iPod and the iPhone. Arabic weddings have changed greatly in the past years. Original traditional Arabic weddings are supposed to be very similar to modern-day Bedouin weddings and rural weddings, and they are in some cases unique from one region to another, even within the same country.
The practice of marrying of relatives is a common feature of Arab culture. E1b1b is the most frequent paternal clade among the populations in the western part of the Arab world Maghreb, Nile Valley, and the Horn of Africa , whereas haplogroup J is the most frequent paternal clade toward the east Arabian peninsula and Near East.
The mtDNA haplogroup J has been observed at notable frequencies among overall populations in the Arab world. The Arabian component is the main autosomal element in the Persian Gulf region. It is most closely associated with local Arabic-speaking populations. The Levantine component is the main autosomal element in the Near East and Caucasus. It peaks among Druze populations in the Levant. The Levantine component diverged from the Arabian component about 15,—23, ypb. The Coptic component is the main autosomal element in Northeast Africa. The Maghrebi component is the main autosomal element in the Maghreb.
It peaks among the non-Arabized Berber populations in the region. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Semitic people. For other uses, see Arab disambiguation and Arabian disambiguation. Further information: Arab etymology. Main article: History of the Arabs. Main article: Pre-Islamic Arabia. Ancient Arab States. Arab Empires. Rashidun — Umayyads — Abbasids — Fatimids — Eastern Dynasties. Western Dynasties.
Arabian Peninsula. Imammate of Oman — Ziyadids — Yufirids — Ukhaidhirds — Rassids — Qarmatians — Wajihids — Sharifate of Mecca — Sulayhids — Sulaymanids — Uyunids — Zurayids — Nabhanids — Mahdids — Rasulids — Usfurids — Jarwanids — Kathirids — Tahirids — Jabrids — Qasimids — Ya'arubids — Upper Yafa — Muscat and Oman — Rashidids — Sultanate of Zanzibar — Qu'aitids — Emirate of Beihan — Idrisids — Mutawakkilite Kingdom — Current monarchies.
Further information: Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples and Proto-Arabic. Main articles: Palmyra and Nabateans. Further information: Lakhmids , Ghassanids , and Kindites. Main article: Rashidun Caliphate. Main article: Umayyad Caliphate. Main article: Abbasid Caliphate. Main article: Fatimid Caliphate. Main articles: Ottoman Empire and Ottoman Caliphate.
Further information: Arab identity. Further information: Tribes of Arabia. Main articles: Arab diaspora and List of Arabic neighborhoods. Main article: Arab culture. Main article: Arabic. Main article: Arabian mythology. Main article: Arabic literature. Main article: Arabic cuisine. Main articles: Arabic art , Nabataean art , Arabic miniature , and Arabesque. Main article: Arabic architecture. Main article: Arabic music. Main article: Arabic philosophy.
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As the camel drivers passed through the deserts of Yemen, experts believe that many of them would have called in at Ma'rib. Dating from at least BC, and now barren and dry, Ma'rib was then a lush oasis teeming with palm trees and exotic plants. Ideally placed, it was situated on the trade routes and with a unique dam of vast proportions. It was also one of only two main sources of frankincense the other being East Africa , so Saba had a virtual monopoly. Ma'rib's wealth accumulated to such an extent that the city became a byword for riches beyond belief throughout the Arab world.
Its people, the Sabeans — a group whose name bears the same etymological root as Saba — lived in South Arabia between the tenth and sixth centuries BC. Their main temple — Mahram Bilqis , or temple of the moon god situated about three miles 5 km from the capital city of Ma'rib — was so famous that it remained sacred even after the collapse of the Sabean civilisation in the sixth century BC — caused by the rerouting of the spice trail.
By that point the dam, now in a poor state of repair, was finally breached. The irrigation system was lost, the people abandoned the site within a year or so, and the temple fell into disrepair and was eventually covered by sand. Saba was known by the Hebrews as Sheba [Note that the collapse of the dam was actually in CE , as shown in the timeline in the same article in the History Files, and attested by MacCulloch ].
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