John Adamss Nixon in China: Musical Analysis, Historical and Political Perspectives

John Adams's Nixon in China
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This is the first critical anthology of writings on his music. With an introduction and index. Contents: Violin Concerto No. Paul Creston: Sonata, Op. With pianist Stacy Rodgers. John the Baptist, Canton, Ohio. London Symphony Orchestra, John Adams, conductor. Lawrence String Quartet String Quartet. With the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra. This song sets a poem by John Hollander, itself based on part of the book of Genesis. This edition includes separate parts for the voice and clarinet.

Language English 54 Multiple Languages 6 German 1. Show Only On Sale Adams, John,. ISBN Publisher: Associated Music Publ. Related Products Doctor Atomic. Marilyn Shrude. John Adams Edition. Publisher: Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra. Series: Grammy Best Classical Compendium. Publisher: Stradivarius Records. Publisher: Amadeus Press. Johnson, Timothy A. Publisher: Ashgate. Publisher: Signum Records. Publisher: Univ. Press New England. John, Johnny Adams, Barbara George.

Publisher: Ace Records U. Publisher: Albany Records. Publisher: Raven Records. Adam Briggs, Saxophone. Publisher: Blue Griffin Records. Publisher: Philips Records. Publisher: Cold Blue. This initiated a brief correspondence between the two which quickly descended into political rancor. Jefferson terminated it by not replying to Abigail's fourth letter. Aside from that, by there had been no communication between Peacefield and Monticello since Adams left office.

In early , Adams reconciled with Jefferson. The previous year had been tragic for Adams; his brother-in-law and friend Richard Cranch had died along with his widow Mary, and Nabby had been diagnosed with breast cancer. These events mellowed Adams and caused him to soften his outlook. Jefferson replied immediately with a cordial letter, and the two men revived their friendship, which they sustained by mail. The correspondence that they resumed in lasted the rest of their lives, and has been hailed as among their great legacies of American literature.

Their letters represent an insight into both the period and the minds of the two revolutionary leaders and presidents. The missives lasted fourteen years, and consisted of letters — from Adams and 49 from Jefferson. Early on, Adams repeatedly tried to turn the correspondence to a discussion of their actions in the political arena. Adams accepted this, and the correspondence turned to other matters, particularly philosophy and their daily habits.

As the two men became older, the letters grew fewer and farther between. There was also important information that each man kept to himself. Jefferson said nothing about his construction of a new house, domestic turmoil, slave ownership, or poor financial situation, while Adams did not mention the troublesome behavior of his son Thomas, who had failed as a lawyer and become an alcoholic, resorting afterwards to living primarily as a caretaker at Peacefield. Abigail died of typhoid on October 28, The Marquis de Lafayette toured the country and met briefly with Adams, who greatly enjoyed the visit.

The results became official in February after a deadlock was decided in the House of Representatives. He did remark, "No man who ever held the office of President would congratulate a friend on obtaining it. Less than a month before his death, Adams issued a statement about the destiny of the United States, which historian Joy Hakim characterized as a warning for his fellow citizens: "My best wishes, in the joys, and festivities, and the solemn services of that day on which will be completed the fiftieth year from its birth, of the independence of the United States: a memorable epoch in the annals of the human race, destined in future history to form the brightest or the blackest page, according to the use or the abuse of those political institutions by which they shall, in time to come, be shaped by the human mind.

On July 4, , the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, Adams died at his home in Quincy at approximately PM.

Dr. Timothy A. Johnson, Music Theory Professor and Graduate Chair, Publishes Third Book

Read John Adams's Nixon in China: Musical Analysis, Historical and Political Perspectives book reviews & author details and more at Free delivery . Editorial Reviews. Review. 'Note by note, line by line, Timothy Johnson crawls across what is John Adams's Nixon in China: Musical Analysis, Historical and Political Perspectives - Kindle edition by Timothy A. Johnson. provides another perspective on the historical event through musical analysis, making connections .

When Adams died, his last words included an acknowledgement of his longtime friend and rival: "Thomas Jefferson survives. During the First Continental Congress, Adams was sometimes solicited for his views on government. While recognizing its importance, Adams had privately criticized Thomas Paine 's pamphlet Common Sense , which attacked all forms of monarchy, even constitutional monarchy of the sort advocated by John Locke. It supported a unicameral legislature and a weak executive elected by the legislature. According to Adams, the author had "a better hand at pulling down than building.

This was incompatible with the system of checks and balances that conservatives like Adams would implement. He did so in separate letters to these colleagues. So impressed was Richard Henry Lee that, with Adams's consent, he had the most comprehensive letter printed. Published anonymously in April , it was titled Thoughts on Government and styled as "a Letter from a Gentleman to his Friend.

Adams advised that the form of government should be chosen to attain the desired ends — the happiness and virtue of the greatest number of people. He wrote that, "There is no good government but what is republican. That the only valuable part of the British constitution is so because the very definition of a republic is an empire of laws, and not of men. Thoughts on Government was referenced in every state-constitution writing hall. Adams used the letter to attack opponents of independence. He claimed that John Dickinson 's fear of republicanism was responsible for his refusal to support independence, and wrote that opposition from Southern planters was rooted in fear that their aristocratic slaveholding status would be endangered by it.

After returning from his first mission to France in , Adams was elected to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention with the purpose of establishing a new constitution for Massachusetts. He served on a committee of three, also including Samuel Adams and James Bowdoin , to draft the constitution. The task of writing it fell primarily to John Adams. The resulting Constitution of Massachusetts was approved in It was the first constitution written by a special committee, then ratified by the people; and was the first to feature a bicameral legislature.

Included were a distinct executive — though restrained by an executive council — with a qualified two-thirds veto, and an independent judicial branch. The judges were given lifetime appointments, allowed to "hold their offices during good behavior. The Constitution affirmed the "duty" of the individual to worship the "Supreme Being," and that he had the right to do so without molestation "in the manner most agreeable to the dictates of his own conscience.

He believed that people "in a State of Ignorance" were more easily enslaved while those "enlightened with knowledge" would be better able to protect their liberties. Adams's preoccupation with political and governmental affairs — which caused considerable separation from his wife and children — had a distinct familial context, which he articulated in "I must study Politicks and War that my sons may have the liberty to study Mathematicks and Philosophy.

While in London, Adams learned of a convention being planned to amend the Articles of Confederation. He suggested that "the rich, the well-born and the able" should be set apart from other men in a senate — that would prevent them from dominating the lower house. Adams's Defence is described as an articulation of the theory of mixed government.

Adams contended that social classes exist in every political society, and that a good government must accept that reality. For centuries, dating back to Aristotle , a mixed regime balancing monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy — that is, the king, the nobles, and the people — was required to preserve order and liberty. Historian Gordon S.

Wood has maintained that Adams's political philosophy had become irrelevant by the time the Federal Constitution was ratified. By then, American political thought, transformed by more than a decade of vigorous debate as well as formative experiential pressures, had abandoned the classical perception of politics as a mirror of social estates.

Americans' new understanding of popular sovereignty was that the citizenry were the sole possessors of power in the nation. Representatives in the government enjoyed mere portions of the people's power and only for a limited time. Adams was thought to have overlooked this evolution and revealed his continued attachment to the older version of politics. On separation of powers , Adams wrote that, "Power must be opposed to power, and interest to interest. He wrote that a strong executive would defend the people's liberties against "aristocrats" attempting to take it away.

There should not be a district of one mile square, without a school in it, not founded by a charitable individual, but maintained at the public expense of the people themselves. Adams first saw the new United States Constitution in late To Jefferson, he wrote that he read it "with great satisfaction. Adams never owned a slave and declined on principle to use slave labor, saying, "I have, through my whole life, held the practice of slavery in such abhorrence, that I have never owned a negro or any other slave, though I have lived for many years in times, when the practice was not disgraceful, when the best men in my vicinity thought it not inconsistent with their character, and when it has cost me thousands of dollars for the labor and subsistence of free men, which I might have saved by the purchase of negroes at times when they were very cheap.

He spoke out in against a bill to emancipate slaves in Massachusetts, saying that the issue was presently too divisive, and so the legislation should "sleep for a time. Throughout his lifetime Adams expressed controversial and shifting views regarding the virtues of monarchical and hereditary political institutions. Many of these attacks are considered to have been scurrilous, including suggestions that he was planning to "crown himself king" and "grooming John Quincy as heir to the throne. He was leaning toward monarchy and aristocracy as distinct from kings and aristocrats Decidedly, sometime after he became vice-president, Adams concluded that the United States would have to adopt a hereditary legislature and a monarch If you suppose that I have ever had a design or desire of attempting to introduce a government of King, Lords and Commons, or in other words an hereditary Executive, or an hereditary Senate, either into the government of the United States, or that of any individual state, in this country, you are wholly mistaken.

There is not such a thought expressed or intimated in any public writing or private letter of mine, and I may safely challenge all of mankind to produce such a passage and quote the chapter and verse. According to Luke Mayville, Adams synthesized two strands of thought: practical study of past and present governments, and Scottish Enlightenment thinking concerning individual desires expressed in politics.

To counter that danger, the power of the wealthy needed to be channeled by institutions, and checked by a strong executive. Adams was raised a Congregationalist , since his ancestors were Puritans. According to biographer David McCullough , "as his family and friends knew, Adams was both a devout Christian, and an independent thinker, and he saw no conflict in that. Everett concludes that "Adams strove for a religion based on a common sense sort of reasonableness" and maintained that religion must change and evolve toward perfection.

Adams at one point said that Christianity had originally been revelatory , but was being misinterpreted in the service of superstition, fraud, and unscrupulous power. Frazer notes that while he shared many perspectives with deists and often used deistic terminology, "Adams clearly was not a deist. Deism rejected any and all supernatural activity and intervention by God; consequently, deists did not believe in miracles or God's providence.

Adams did believe in miracles, providence, and, to a certain extent, the Bible as revelation. But historian Gordon S. Wood writes, "Although both Jefferson and Adams denied the miracles of the Bible and the divinity of Christ, Adams always retained a respect for the religiosity of people that Jefferson never had; in fact, Jefferson tended in private company to mock religious feelings.

In his retirement years, Adams moved away from some of the Puritan sentiments of his youth and closer to more mainstream Enlightenment religious ideals. He blamed institutional Christianity for causing much suffering but continued to be an active Christian while maintaining that religion was necessary for society. He became a Unitarian , rejecting the divinity of Jesus. Holmes argues that Adams, while adopting central tenets of the Unitarian creed, accepted Jesus as the redeemer of humanity and the biblical accounts of his miracles as true.

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Franklin summed up what many thought of Adams when he said, "He means well for his country, is always an honest man, often a wise one, but sometimes, and in some things, absolutely out of his senses. Adams strongly felt that he would be forgotten and underappreciated by history. These feelings often manifested themselves through envy and verbal attacks on other Founders. Historian George Herring argues that Adams was the most independent-minded of the Founders.

I sighed, sobbed, and groaned, and sometimes screeched and screamed. And I must confess to my shame and sorrow that I sometimes swore. His signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts is almost always condemned. According to Ferling, Adams's political philosophy fell "out of step" with the way that the country was heading. The country tended further away from Adams's emphasis on order and the rule of law and towards the Jeffersonian vision of liberty and weak central government. In the years following his retirement from public life, as first Jeffersonianism and then Jacksonian democracy grew to dominate American politics, Adams was largely forgotten.

In the presidential election , Whig candidate William Henry Harrison was attacked by Democrats on the false allegation that he had once been a supporter of John Adams. Edward A. Pollard , a strong supporter of the Confederacy during the American Civil War , singled out Adams, writing:. The first President from the North, John Adams, asserted and essayed to put into practice the supremacy of the "National" power over the states and the citizens thereof.

He was sustained in his attempted usurpations by all the New England states and by a powerful public sentiment in each of the Middle States. The " strict constructionists " of the Constitution were not slow in raising the standard of opposition against a pernicious error.

John Adams's Nixon in China : Musical Analysis, Historical and Political Perspectives

In the 21st century, Adams remains less well known than many of America's other Founding Fathers. McCullough argued that "[t]he problem with Adams is that most Americans know nothing about him. Ferling, in his biography, writes that "Adams was his own worst enemy. He praises Adams for his willingness to acknowledge his deficiencies and for striving to overcome them.

Ferling believes that the man who emerges is one "perpetually at war with himself", whose desire for fame and recognition leads to charges of vanity. McCullough lauds Adams for consistency and honesty, "plays down or explains away" his more controversial actions, such as the dispute over presidential titles and the predawn flight from the White House, and criticizes his friend and rival, Jefferson.

The book sold very well and was very favorably received and, along with the Ferling biography, contributed to a rapid resurgence in Adams's reputation.

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Adams is commemorated as the namesake of various counties, buildings, and other items. There is no memorial, no statue It's long past time when we should recognize what he did, and who he was. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the second president of the United States. For his son, the sixth president, see John Quincy Adams. For other uses, see John Adams disambiguation. Abigail Smith m. Main article: Diplomacy of John Adams. Main article: United States presidential election, Main article: Presidency of John Adams. Main article: XYZ Affair.

Main article: Alien and Sedition Acts. Main article: Fries's Rebellion. Main article: List of federal judges appointed by John Adams. See also: Bibliography of John Adams. Main article: List of memorials to John Adams. None ever understood so ill the causes of its own power, or so wantonly destroyed them.

Kurtz argues that Hamilton and his supporters were primarily responsible for the destruction of the Federalist Party. They viewed the party as a personal tool and played into the hands of the Jeffersonians by building up a large standing army and creating a feud with Adams. And indeed it would have been inconsistent in creation to have formed man for the social state, and not to have provided virtue and wisdom enough to manage the concerns of society.

May we not even say that the form of government is best which provides most effectually for a pure selection of these natural [aristocrats] into the offices of government? Birth and wealth are conferred on some men as imperiously by nature, as genius, strength, or beauty. When aristocracies are established by human laws and honour, wealth, and power are made hereditary by municipal laws and political institutions, then I acknowledge artificial aristocracy to commence.

A good government had to account for that reality. Retrieved September 30, The Harvard Gazette. November 6, Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved December 5, Retrieved August 24, June 30, Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved June 7, United States National Archives. November Retrieved October 1, John Adams Historical Society. Archived from the original on June 14, Retrieved July 5, Jonathan Ashbrook Center.

Archived from the original on April 15, Retrieved August 22, Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved July 29, Archived from the original on September 6, Retrieved September 7, Retrieved November 15, Walker Elrod, Jennifer. Archived PDF from the original on August 6, Retrieved October 8, Archived from the original on June 24, Retrieved September 22, Massachusetts Historical Society.

Archived from the original on March 24, Retrieved October 11, To William P. The Works of Thomas Jefferson. Putnam's Sons, — Embassy The Hague, Netherlands". November 16, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved March 2, Retrieved September 18, Washington, DC: Architect of the Capitol. Retrieved July 15, Retrieved September 29, Constitution Daily. Retrieved August 18, Time Magazine. Retrieved March 11, James October 4, Retrieved August 3, Retrieved November 13, Retrieved September 26, Retrieved August 20, The New York Times. Retrieved October 17, Washington, DC: U.

Retrieved August 23, Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved August 29, President of the United States, [24 October ]". National Archives. Retrieved June 5, Naval History and Heritage Command. Archived from the original on September 9, Archived from the original on August 12, Library of Congress. Retrieved June 29, Constitution Center. Retrieved October 7, Cappon p. Cappon, p. CBS News. February 5, Retrieved January 29, United First Parish Church. Archived from the original on September 11, Retrieved September 25, IV, p.

Archived from the original on January 25, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 6, Letter to Robert J. Government Printing Office. Archived PDF from the original on December 19, PBS online. Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 17, The Political Theology of the American Founding. PhD dissertation. Claremont Graduate University. Retrieved October 30, Retrieved November 7, Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 10, Adams County, PA. Geological Survey. The Washington Post. Biographies Chinard, Gilbert Honest John Adams.

Diggins, John P. Schlesinger, Arthur M. John Adams. The American Presidents. Ellis, Joseph J.


The president's already slight enthusiasm for land defenses began to weaken rapidly. Adams had played a crucial role in the declaration's approval. Spiro's physical insight is especially impressive. This book explores the characteristics of China's outward foreign investment, its motivation, its sector distribution, and its geographical distribution in order to illustrate the current pattern of merchant-state dualism in China's overseas foreign direct investment. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

New York, NY: W. Ferling, John E. John Adams: A Life. McCullough, David Morse, John Torey Shaw, Peter The Character of John Adams. Smith, Page a. Volume I, — Smith, Page b. Volume II, — The Declaration of Independence: the evolution of the text. Brookhiser, Richard America's First Dynasty: The Adamses, Burns, James MacGregor New York, NY: St. Martin's Press. Chernow, Ron Alexander Hamilton. London, UK: Penguin Books. Cochrane, Rexmond C. Washington, D. Elkins, Stanley M. The Age of Federalism. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation.

Everett, Robert B. Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association. Ferling, John Fielding, Howard Journal of Religion. Flexner, James Thomas Washington: The Indispensable Man. Boston, MA: Little, Brown. Gimbel, Richard Hakim, Joy The New Nation. Herring, George C. From colony to superpower: U. Hoadley, John F. Origins of American Political Parties: — Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. Hutson, James H. The New England Quarterly. Isenberg, Mary; Burstein, Andrew New York: Viking.

Kirtley, James Samuel Kurtz, Stephen G. Maier, Pauline American Scripture: Making the Declaration of Independence. Mayville, Luke John Adams and the Fear of American Oligarchy. McDonald, Forrest The Presidency of George Washington. American Presidency. Miller, Nathan The U. Navy: A History, Third Edition. Moore, George Notes on the history of slavery in Massachusetts. New York, NY: D. Pollard, Edward A. The First Year of the War. Rossiter, Clinton Conservatism in America. New York, NY: Knopf. Shafer, Ronald G. Thompson, C. Bradley John Adams and the Spirit of Liberty. Wiencek, Henry Waterville, ME: Thorndike Press.

Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, — Essays and controversial papers of the Revolution. Little, Brown. Adams, John Biddle, Alexander ed. Old Family Letters. Philadelphia, PA: Press of J. Lippincott Company. Carey, George Wescott ed. The Political Writings of John Adams. Diggins, John Patrick ed. The Portable John Adams. Peek, George A. Adams, John; Rush, Benjamin Schutz, John A.

Adams, John; Tudor, WIlliam Wroth, L. Kinvin; Zobel, Hiller B. The Legal Papers of John Adams. Butterfield, L. Multivolume letterpress edition of all letters to and from major members of the Adams family, plus their diaries; still incomplete. Adams Family Correspondence. Foot, Michael ; Kramnick, Isaac , eds. The Thomas Paine Reader. Penguin Classics. Hogan, Margaret; Taylor, C. James, eds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Richardson, James Daniel, ed. A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.

Taylor, Robert J. Papers of John Adams. Main article: Bibliography of John Adams. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " John Adams " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Audio help. More spoken articles. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, — U. United States presidential election — Postage stamps Adams Memorial.

Adams grandson Charles Adams Sr. Offices and distinctions. While Adams won the vice presidency in as well, he was not the candidate of the Federalist Party, which had not yet formed. Technically, Adams was a presidential candidate in and Pinckney was a presidential candidate in Prior to the passage of the Twelfth Amendment in , each presidential elector could cast two ballots; the highest vote-getter would become president and the runner-up would become vice president. Thus, in , with George Washington as the prohibitive favorite for president, the Federalist party fielded Adams as a presidential candidate, with the intention that he be elected to the vice presidency.

Similarly, in and , the Federalist party fielded two candidates, Adams and Thomas Pinckney, in and Adams and Charles Pinckney in , with the intention that Adams be elected president and Pinckney be elected vice president. Articles related to John Adams. Signers of the United States Declaration of Independence.

Physical history of the Declaration of Independence , Memorial to the 56 Signers. Adams S. Lee R. Morris R. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A.

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John Adams - Nixon in China - Live at the ENO 2000 (with Score) - Part 4